Latrine ya libulu

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Elili ya libulu ya latrine na nzungu ya kongubamela mpe ebombamelo.[1]

Latrine ya libulu to WC ya libulu eza lolenge moko ya toilette eye eyambaka nyei ya batu nakati ya lidusu eye epukami na mabele. Esalelaka mayi te mpe litre moko to misatu te ya mayi ya vidange.[2] Tango etongami mpe ebatelami ndenge elongobani ekoki kokitisa bopalanganisi ya ba maladi na nzela ya bokitisi motango ya nyei ya batu nakati na nzinga nzinga kowuta na kosumba esika polele.[3][4] Yango ekitisaka bongo bomemi ba agents pathogènes kati na ba nyei mpe bilei na ba nzinzi.[3] Ba agents pathogènes oyo baza ntina monene ya infection ya pulupulu mpe infections ya mitsopo na minyo.[4] Infection ya pulupulu ememaki liwa ya pene na 0.7 million ya bana ya mibu na se ya mitano na 2011 mpe kobungisa 250 million ya mikolo ya kelasi.[4][5] Ba latrines ya libulu eza lolenge ya bokaboli nyei na batu eye ekosenga misolo mike mpeza.[3]

Mingi mingi mpeza latrine ya libulu ezalaka na biteni misatu: lidusu na mabele, nzungu to pavement na lidusu moke, na mpe ebombamelo.[2] Mpeza libulu ezalaka na au moins 3 mètres (10 pieds) na bozindo mpe 1 m (3.2 pieds) na pembeni.[2] Organisation Mondiale ya Santé esengaka ete etongama kamua mosika na ndaku na botali ndenge ya koyanola likambo ya facilité ya bokoti na solo.[3] Distance kowuta na mayi ya se ya mabele kino na mayi ya likolo ya mabele esengeli ezala monene mpo na kokitisa risque ya pollution. Lidusu nakati ya nzungu esengeli te ezala monene koleka 25 centimètres (9,8 pouces) mpo na kosala ete bana bakweya nakati te. Esengeli kokanga nzela mpo na pole (lumière) ekota te na libulu mpo na kitisa boingeli ya ba nzinzi. Yango ekoki kosenga ete ezipeli ezala mpo na kozipaka libulu eye eza na pavement tango mutu moko te azali kosalela yango.[3] Tango libulu etondi kino pene ya 0.5 mètres (1.6 pieds) na likolo, ekosengela kovider yango to kotonga libulu mususu ya sika mpe komema ebombamelo nayango to mpe kotongela libulu ya sika ebombamelo nayango.[6] Bolengeli potopoto ya nyei eye ebimisami na libulu ezalaka mua mpasi. Ezalaka na ba risques environnemental mpe ya santé soki esalemi malamu te.

Latrine ya libulu ya simple ekoki kozala améliorer na ba nzela ndenge na ndenge. Moko ya ba nzela ezali bobakisi tuyau ya kolekisa mopepe kowuta na libulu kino na likolo ya toilette. Yango ebongisaka bolekisi mopepe mpe ekitisaka solo na toilette. Ekoki mpe kokitisa motango ya ba nzinzi tango mutu ya tuyau ezipami na kiyungulu (mingi mingi oyo esalemi na fibre de verre). Na balolenge ya ba toilettes oyo esengeli kosalela ezipeli mpo na kozipa lidusu ya toilette oyo eza na pavement.[6] Lolenge mosusu ya amélioration eza pavement eye etongami na ndenge ya kotsiolisa mayi mpe kolendisa likolo ya libulu ya toilette na ba briques to ciment mpo na koaméliorer bokasi nayango.[2][6]

Uta mobu ya 2013, etangemi ete milliard 1.77 ya batu basalelaka ba latrines ya mabulu.[7] Yango eza mingi mingi mpeza nakati ya ba pays en voie de développement mpe na ba milieux ruraux mpe désertiques. Na 2011 pene ya 2.5 milliard ya batu bazangaki toilette eye elongobani mpe milliard moko balandaki nzela ya kosumba na esika ya polele nzinga nzinga nabango.[8] Azia ya Se na Afrika ya Se ya Sahara eza mikili miye miza na mikakatano ebele mpeza mpo na bozui toilette.[8] Na ba pays en voie de développement talo mpo na kozua toilette simple moko eza kati ya 25 na 60 $ USA.[9] Talo mpo na misala ya kokoba kolengela toilette eza kati ya 1.5 na 4 $ USA na mutu moko na moko na mobu mobimba, oyo batalelaka yango kutu te.[10] Na ba mileiux ruraux misusu na Inde campagne ya "No Toilet, No Bride" (koloba ete 'Soki toilette eza te, Likwela eza te') esalemaki mpo na kopromouvoir ba toilettes na nzela ya bosengi basi baboya kobala mibali oyo baza na toilette te.[11][12]

Ba références[kokoma | kobɔngisa mosólo]

  1. (en) WEDC, Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005, Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University, 22 p. (ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6, lire en ligne)
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 et 2,3 (en) Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C., Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, Dübendorf, Switzerland, 2,‎ 2014 (ISBN 9783906484570, lire en ligne)
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 et 3,4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". 1996. http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Js13461e/3.4.html. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 et 4,2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). http://sanitationdrive2015.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/DSG_Sanitation_Fast-Facts_final.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H et al. (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMID 23582727. 
  6. 6,0 6,1 et 6,2 (en) François Brikké, Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation, World Health Organization,‎ 2003 (ISBN 9241562153, lire en ligne), p. 108
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. PMID 23518813. 
  8. 8,0 et 8,1 (en) Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update., WHO,‎ 2014, 16–20 p. (ISBN 9789241507240, lire en ligne [PDF])
  9. (en) Janine M. H. Selendy, Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures, Hoboken, N.J., Wiley-Blackwell,‎ 2011 (ISBN 9781118148600, lire en ligne), p. 25
  10. (en) Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?, Intl Water Assn,‎ 2013 (ISBN 9781780405414, lire en ligne), p. 161
  11. (en) Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits, Cambridge University Press,‎ 2013 (ISBN 9781107435247, lire en ligne), p. 623
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Blog of World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/impactevaluations/haryanas-scarce-women-tell-potential-suitors-no-loo-no-i-do-guest-post-by-yaniv-stopnitzky. Retrieved 17 November 2014.