Molangwa ya seko na seko

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Kokɛndɛ na: bolúki, boluki

Molangwa ya seko na seko, eyebani mpe bo mpasi ya bolangwi masanga mpe syndrome ya komipesa na masanga, eza nkombo eye basaleka mpo na bomeli masanga nionso oyo ekoki komema nkokoso.[1] Kala ekobolamaka na lolenge mibale: komela masanga mabe na komipesa na masanga.[2][3] Kolandana na minganga, molangwa ya seko na seko ezalaka ntago makambo mabale to koleka ya maye malandi mamonani: mutu akomela ebele ya masanga na eleko molayi, aza komona mpasi kokata, koluka masanga mpe komela yango eza kozwa ntango molayi, kozala na mposa ya masanga mingi mpeza, komela masanga eza kosala ete mutu atala mokumba naye te, komela masanga eza komema nkokoso na batu, komela masanga eza komema nkokoso na nzoto, komela masanga eza komema na nzela ya makama, kozangisa esalemaka ntango mutu aza kotika komela, mpe komikaba na masanga esalemaka na bomeli masanga.[3] Makambo maye makoki komema likama eza komela masanga mpe kotambwisa motuka to kosangana bonzoto oyo ebatelami te.[3] Komela masanga ekoki kotungisa biteni nionso ya nzoto kasi mingi mpeza etungisaka bongo, motema, foie, pancréas, mpe bokengi ya nzoto. Yango ekoki komema mental illness, syndrome ya Wernicke–Korsakoff, motema kobeta ndenge esengeli te, défaillance hépatique, mpe kobakisa risque ya kozwa cancer.[4][5] Komela masanga na eleko ya zemi ekoki kobota mikakatano epayi ya mwana mpe komema nkokoso nionso ya masanga na foetus.[6] Mingi mingi mpeza ba effet ya masanga na nzoto mpe moto esimbaka basi koleka mibali.[7]

Ezala bafacteur génétique to ya nzinga nziga nionso esalaka na bozalisi molangwa ya seko na seko mpe ezali kokabola ba risque ndenge moko. Mutu oyo aza na moboti to ndeko oyo azali na molangwa ya seko na seko, azali na mabaku misato to minei ya ye mpe kokoma na molangwa ya seko na seko.[4] Bafacteur ya nzinga nzinga eza ba influance ya baninga, ya bomoto mpe ya ezaleli.[8] Ba niveaux ya stress ya likolo, komitungisa, na mpe masanga ya talo moke oyo ekozwama na bopete abakisaka risque.[4][9] Batu bakoki kokoba komela moke mpo na komibatela na mpasi ya kozanga masanga. Mua ba sanza ya bozangisi ekokoba kozala na niveau ya moke sima ya kotika komela masanga.[4] Minganga batalaka molangwa ya seko na seko bo maladi ya nzoto mpe ya moto.[10][11] Ezala ba questionnaire to bomeki makila ekoki kosalisa na bokundoli batu oyo bakoki kozala na molangwa ya seko na seko. Mayebisi mosusu masangisamaka na sima mpo na koconfirmer diagnostic.[4]

Kobatela batu na molangwa ya seko na seko ekoki kosalema na nzela ya mibeko mpe kotia ndelo ya boteki masanga, kofutisa mpako ya masanga mpo na komatisa talo ya masanga, mpe kopesa traitement na talo moke.[12] Traitement ekoki kozala na ba etape ebele. Mpo na mikakatano miye mibimelaka na eleko ya bozangisi, désintoxication ya masanga esengeli elandelama na bokebi. Methode oyo esalelamaka mingi eza kopesa nkisi oyo eza na benzodiazépine, neti diazépam. Yango ekoki kopesama ntango mutu alalisami na mbeto ya lopitalo to mbala na mbala ntango batiki mutu azala epayi naye kasi akolandelama na pene.[13] Ba dépendance mosusu to maladi ya moto ekoki komema mbilinga mbilinga na traitement.[14] Na sima ya désintoxication lisungi neti ya thérapie ya lingomba to mangomba ya lisungi basalelaka yango mpo na kosalisa mutu azongela lisusu komela masanga te.[15][16] Lolenge ya lusungi liye basalelaka mingi eza lingomba Balangwi Bazanga Nkombo.[17] Nkisi oyo acamprosate, disulfirame, to naltrexone bakoki mpe kosalela yango mpo na kopekisa mutu akoba komela.[18]

Organisation Mondiale ya Santé emoni ete kotala na mobu ya 2010 na mokili mobimba 208 million ya batu bazalaki na molangwa ya seko na seko (4.1% ya baye baza na mibu koleka 15).[7][19] Na Etat Unis, pene na 17 million (7%) ya batu bakolo mpe 0.7 million (2.8%) ya baye baza na mibu 12 kino 17 batungisami.[20] Esimbaka mingi mibali na bilenge oyo bakomi komela, mpe etungisaka mingi te baye baza na mibu kobanda na tuku mitano na babange.[4] It is the least common in Africa at 1.1% and eza na taux likolo koleka na Eropa ya Est na 11%.[4] Molangwa ya seko na seko ememaki liwa ya batu 139,000 na mobu ya 2013 motango oyo momataki kouta na 112,000 ya baye bakufaki na 1990.[21] 3.3 million ya nionso baye bakufaki (5.9% ya baweyi) endimami ete bakufaki mpo na molangwa ya seko na seko.[20] Mingi mingi ekitisaka eleko ya bomoyi bua mutu na kumba pene na mibu zomi.[22] Na Etats Unis ememaki 224 milliards ya dollar américain na mobu ya 2006.[20] Maloba ebele, mosusu ya kofinga mpe mosusu informal, basalelaka yango mpo na kotalisa batu oyo batungisami na molangwa ya seko na seko, kati nayango eza: kwiti-kwiti, molangwi, dipsomane, mpe sans souci.[23] Na mobu ya 1979, Organisation Mondiale ya Santé esengaki batika kosalela liloba  "alcoolisme" mpo na bozangi ya bosembolami ya ntina ya liloba oyo, eponaki basalela "sydrome de dépendance à l'alcool".[24]

References[kokoma | kobɔngisa mosólo]

  1. (en) Jill Littrell, Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism:volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse., Hoboken, Taylor and Francis,‎ 2014 (ISBN 9781317783145, lire en ligne), p. 55 :

    « The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems »

  2. Hasin, Deborah (December 2003). "Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders". http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/5-17.htm. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  3. 3,0, 3,1 et 3,2 "Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5". November 2013. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsmfactsheet/dsmfact.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  4. 4,0, 4,1, 4,2, 4,3, 4,4, 4,5 et 4,6 (en) American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5., Washington, D.C., 5,‎ 2013, 490–497 p. (ISBN 9780890425541)
  5. "Alcohol's Effects on the Body". http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  6. "Fetal Alcohol Exposure". http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/fetal-alcohol-exposure. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  7. 7,0 et 7,1 (en) Global status report on alcohol and health 2014, World Health Organization,‎ 2014 (ISBN 9789240692763, lire en ligne), s8,51
  8. Agarwal-Kozlowski K, Agarwal DP (April 2000). "[Genetic predisposition for alcoholism]". Ther Umsch 57 (4): 179–84. doi:10.1024/0040-5930.57.4.179. PMID 10804873. 
  9. Moonat, S; Pandey, SC (2012). "Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.". Alcohol research : current reviews 34 (4): 495–505. PMID 23584115. 
  10. Mersy, DJ (1 April 2003). "Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse.". American family physician 67 (7): 1529–32. PMID 12722853. 
  11. "HEALTH AND ETHICS POLICIES OF THE AMA HOUSE OF DELEGATES". June 2008. p. 33. http://www.ama-assn.org/ad-com/polfind/Hlth-Ethics.pdf. Retrieved 10 May 2015. "H-30.997 Dual Disease Classification of Alcoholism: The AMA reaffirms its policy endorsing the dual classification of alcoholism under both the psychiatric and medical sections of the International Classification of Diseases. (Res. 22, I-79; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-89; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-90; Reaffirmed by CSA Rep. 14, A-97; Reaffirmed: CSAPH Rep. 3, A-07)" 
  12. "Alcohol". January 2015. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs349/en/. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  13. Blondell RD (February 2005). "Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alcohol dependence". Am Fam Physician 71 (3): 495–502. PMID 15712624. 
  14. DeVido, JJ; Weiss, RD (December 2012). "Treatment of the depressed alcoholic patient.". Current psychiatry reports 14 (6): 610–8. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0314-7. PMID 22907336. 
  15. Morgan-Lopez AA, Fals-Stewart W (May 2006). "Analytic complexities associated with group therapy in substance abuse treatment research: problems, recommendations, and future directions". Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14 (2): 265–73. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.14.2.265. PMID 16756430. 
  16. Albanese, AP (November 2012). "Management of alcohol abuse.". Clinics in liver disease 16 (4): 737–62. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2012.08.006. PMID 23101980. 
  17. Tusa, AL; Burgholzer, JA (2013). "Came to believe: spirituality as a mechanism of change in alcoholics anonymous: a review of the literature from 1992 to 2012.". Journal of addictions nursing 24 (4): 237–46. doi:10.1097/jan.0000000000000003. PMID 24335771. 
  18. Testino, G; Leone, S; Borro, P (December 2014). "Treatment of alcohol dependence: recent progress and reduction of consumption.". Minerva medica 105 (6): 447–66. PMID 25392958. 
  19. "Global Population Estimates by Age, 1950–2050". http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/01/30/global-population/. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  20. 20,0, 20,1 et 20,2 "Alcohol Facts and Statistics". http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  21. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
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  23. (en) Chambers English Thesaurus, Allied Publishers (ISBN 9788186062043, lire en ligne), p. 175
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