Bolei Mabe

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Kokɛndɛ na: bolúki, boluki
Bolei Mabe
Bolei MabeRuban ya orange—ruban ya boyebisi mpo na malnutrition.
Ruban ya orange—ruban ya boyebisi mpo na malnutrition.
Classification mpe ressources ya kowuta libanda
ICD/CIM-9 263.9 263.9
MedlinePlus 000404

Bolei mabe to malnutrition eza lolenge loye lowuti na bolei bilei biye bizali na ba élément nutritif ya kokoka te to ya koleka neti kino komema nkokoso na nzoto.[1][2] Ba élément nutritif oyo etalemi awa ekoki kozala: ba calories, protéine, ba hydrates ya carbone, ba vitamine to ba minéraux.[2] Mingi mingi mpeza liloba oyo esalelamaka mpo na kolakisa sous-alimentation epayi wapi ba calories, protéine to ba élément nutritif ya mike mike eza ya kokoka te; kasi, ekoki mpe kozala suralimentation.[3][4] Soki sous-alimetation esalemi na ntongo ya zemi to liboso ya mwana kokokisa mibu mibale ekoki komema ba nkokoso ya koumela libela na nzoto mpe na bongo.[2] Sous-alimentation ya koluta, eye eyebani bo bozangi bilei, ekoki kozala na bilembo biye: kokoma mokuse, nzoto ya kokonda, kosila makasi ya nzoto, mpe kovimba makolo na libumu.[2][3] Mingi mingi lisusu batu bazwaka ba infections mpe bakomaka na malili. Bilembo ya ba carances ya ba éléments nutritifs ya mike mike elandanaka na élément nutritif ya moke eye ezali kozanga.[3]

Sous-alimentation esalalemaka mingi mpeza kolandana na bozangi bilei ya qualité ya malamu mpeza mpo na kolia.[5] Yango elandanaka mingi mpeza na talo ya bilei makasi koleka mpe pauvreté.[2][5] Kozanga komelisa mwana libele ya mama ekoki kocontribuer, neti kaka ba maladies infectieuses ya ndenge na ndenge lokola: gastro-entérite, pneumonie, malaria na rougeole eye ebakisaka bosenga ya ba élément nutritif.[5] Eza na lolenge mibale ya sous-alimentation: malnutrition na proteine-énergie mpe ba carences diététiques.[4] Malnutrition na proteine-énergie ezalaka na lolenge mibale ya makasi: marasme (bozangi proteine na ba calories) mpe kwashiorkor (bozangi proteine kaka).[3] Ba carences ya ba éléments nutritifs oyo eyebani mingi mpeza eza: bozangi fer, iode na vitamine A.[3] Na eleko ya zemi, kolandana na bosenga ebele, ba carences esalemaka mingi mingi mpeza.[6] Na ba pays en voie de développement misusu suralimentation na lolenge ya obésité ebandi komonana ote ya bikolo bina bo sous-alimentation.[7] Ntina misusu ya malnutrition eza anorexie mentale na chirugie bariatrique.[8][9]

Makasi maye masalamaka mpo na komatisa nutrition mazali moko ya lolonge ya aide au développement ya solo solo.[10] Komelisa mwana libela ya mama ekoki kotisa taux ya malnutrition mpe liwa ya bana mike,[2] mpe makasi mpo na kopromouvoir lolenge lona mamatisaka taux ya bomelisi mwana libele ya mama.[11] Bopesi bana mike belei kobakisa na libele ya mama kati ya sanza motoba na mibu mibale e amélioraka ba résultats.[11] Ba preuves ya komonana eza kosoutenir ba suppléments mpo na ba éléments nutritifs ya mike mike ya ndenge na ndenge mpo na ba mama na eleko ya zemi mpe mpo na bana mike nakati ya ba pays en voie de déloppement.[11] Kopesa bilei na batu baye bazali na bosenga nayango koleka ezala bopesi bilei to bopesi mbongo mpo ete batu bakoka kosomba bilei nataki ya ba nzando nabango, esalisaka mpeza.[10][12] Kopesa batu bilei kaka na bitelelo nabango ya kelasi ekoki te.[10] Kolandela malnutrition oyo ya makasi na ndaku ya mutu oyo azali nayango na ba Aliments Thérapeutiques prêts pour consommation mbala mingi esalemaka.[11] Epayi ya baye bazali na malnutrition ya makasi eye eza compliqué na mikakatano misusu ya bonkolongono, kolandela traitement na lopitalo ezalaka recommandé.[11] Mingi mingi ezalaka kolandela sukali nakati ya makila, température ya nzoto, bokauki ya mayi ya nzoto, mpe kolia graduellement.[11][13] Bomeli ba antibiotiques mbala na mbala mingi mingi ezalaka recommander mpo na risque ya infection.[13] Ba mesures ya long-terme eza: kobakisa misala ya bilanga,[14] kokitisa taux ya pauvreté, koaméliorer assainissement, mpe kopesa makoki na ba mama.[10]

Na mobu ya 2010 na mokili mobimba batu baye baza sous-alimenté bazalaki 925 million.[15][16] Yango ezali bongo kobakisama ya batu 80 million uta 1990 to kokita ya 2,5 % na pourcentage ya baye baza sous-alimenté.[15] Milliard moko ya batu basusu batangemi bo baye bazangi ba vitamines na ba minéraux.[10] Na 2013 malnutrition na proteine-énergie etalemaki neti liye limemaki liwa ya batu 469, 000 motango oyo mokitaki kowuta na batu 510, 000 na mobu ya 1990.[17] Ba carences misusu ya nutrition, oyo eza carence ya iode na anémie mpo na carence ya fer, ememaki liwa ya batu 84,000 basusu.[17] Sous-alimentation na mobu ya 2010 ezalaki ntina ya 1.4 % na nionso ya mibu ya bomoyi miye miza ajuster kolandana na handicape.[10][18]Pene na un tiers ya liwa epayi ya bana endimami ete eza ntina na sous-alimentation; kasi, mbala mingi te baweyi batangemaka bo baye bakufi mpo na sous-alimentation.[5] Na 2010 sous-alimentaion etalemaki bo liye licontribuaki na liwa ya basi mpe bana pene na 1.5 million[18] atako basusu baza kokanisa ete motango oyo mokoki kozala monene koluta 3 million.[11] Million 165 mosusu ya bana baza na retard ya croissance kowuta na bolei mabe.[11] Sous-alimentation mingi mingi ezalaka na bapays en voie de développement.[19] Ba groupe songolo ya batu baza na taux monene ya sous-alimentation, yango ezali bongo basi mingi mingi tango ya zemi to ya bomelisi mwana libele, bana baye baza na mibu na se ya mitano mpe bampaka. Na bompaka malnutrition esalemaka mingi mingi mpeza kolanada na ba facteurs physique, psychologique mpe social.[20]

Ba références[kokoma | kobɔngisa mosólo]

  1. Modèle:DorlandsDict
  2. 2,0, 2,1, 2,2, 2,3, 2,4 et 2,5 (en) Facts for life, New York, 4th ed.,‎ 2010, 61 and 75 p. (ISBN 978-92-806-4466-1, lire en ligne)
  3. 3,0, 3,1, 3,2, 3,3 et 3,4 (en) E.M. Young, Food and development, Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge,‎ 2012, 36–38 p. (ISBN 9781135999414, lire en ligne)
  4. 4,0 et 4,1 (en) Essentials of International Health, Jones & Bartlett Publishers,‎ 2011 (ISBN 9781449667719, lire en ligne), p. 194
  5. 5,0, 5,1, 5,2 et 5,3 "Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health". http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/malnutrition/en/. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  6. (en) editor, Mala Arora ; co-editor, Justin C. Konje, Recurrent pregnancy loss, New Delhi, 2nd ed.,‎ 2007 (ISBN 9788184480061)
  7. "Progress For Children: A Report Card On Nutrition". UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/Progress_for_Children_-_No._4.pdf. 
  8. (en) editor-in-chief, Benjamin Caballero ; editors, Lindsay Allen, Andrew Prentice, Encyclopedia of human nutrition, Amsterdam, 2nd ed.,‎ 2005 (ISBN 9780080454283, lire en ligne), p. 68
  9. (en) Stoelting's anesthesia and co-existing disease, Philadelphia, 6th ed.,‎ 2012 (ISBN 9781455738120, lire en ligne), p. 324
  10. 10,0, 10,1, 10,2, 10,3, 10,4 et 10,5 "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’". Department for International Development. Oct 2012. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67319/undernutrition-finalevidence-oct12.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  11. 11,0, 11,1, 11,2, 11,3, 11,4, 11,5, 11,6 et 11,7 Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A et al. (Aug 3, 2013). "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?". Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4. PMID 23746776. 
  12. "World Food Programme, Cash and Vouchers for Food". April 2012. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp246176.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  13. 13,0 et 13,1 (en) Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children, Geneva, World Health Organization,‎ 2003 (ISBN 9241546093)
  14. Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011). "Solutions for a cultivated planet". Nature 478 (7369): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10452. PMID 21993620. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7369/full/nature10452.html. 
  15. 15,0 et 15,1 "Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high International hunger targets difficult to reach". September 2010. http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/al390e/al390e00.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  16. (en) Foodmpé Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),‎ 2008 (ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0, lire en ligne), p. 2 :

    « FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period. »

  17. 17,0 et 17,1 Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604. 
  18. 18,0 et 18,1 Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. (December 2012). "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2224–60. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8. PMID 23245609. 
  19. (en) Liz Young, World Hunger Routledge Introductions to Development,‎ 2002 (ISBN 9781134774944, lire en ligne), p. 20
  20. (en) Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, editors, Principles and practice of geriatric surgery, Berlin, 2nd ed.,‎ 2011 (ISBN 9781441969996, lire en ligne), p. 78