Epatíte B

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Epatíte B (Hepatitis B) ezalí bokono boye bopesamaka na nzela ya virus ya epatíte B (HBV) oyo ezwaka foie. Yango ekoki komema ba infection ya kozongaka mbala na mbala mpe oyo ya makasi. Batu ebele balakisa bilembo na eleko eye elandi infection. Epayi ya batu basusu bilembo ya bokono bimonanaka liboso na ngonga na kosanza, loposo kokoma jaune, koyoka bolembu, masuba ya moyindo mpe mpasi na se libumu.[1] Mingi mingi bilembo oyo bisalaka mua ba poso mpe lisusu infection ya mbala ya liboso ememaka mingi mpeza te na liwa.[1][2] Ekoki kosala mikolo 30 kino 180 mpo ete bilembo bibanda.[1] Na baye bazwaka infection pene na eleko ya mbotama 90% ba developaka epatíte B eye ezongaka mbala na mbala zonka nde bobele 10% ya baye bazwaka infection na sima ya mibu mitano nde bazwamaka nayango.[3] Ebele ya baye baza bokono boye bokozongaka mbala na mbala balakisa bilembo te; kasi, cirrhose mpe cancer ya foie ekoki tango mosusu kobimela.[4] Mikakatano oyo mimeka liwa ya 15 kino 25% na baye baza na bokono boye bozongaka mbala na mbala.[1]

Virus epesamaka na nzela ya makila maye masili kozwama na maladi to ba mayi ya nzoto. Infection pene na eleko ya mbotama to kosangana na makila ya batu basusu na ntango ya bomwana ezali lolenge loye epatíte B epesamaka mpeza na bisaka biye bokono oyo bozwi batu ebele. Bisika biye bokono bopanzani mingi te na batu, komibeta tonga ya lopipi mpe kosangana bonzoto yango nde ezali ba nzela oyo bokono oyo bomesaka.[1] Bafacteur misusu oyo ememaka likama eza kosala na lopitalo, bozongisi makila, dialyse, kobika esika moko na mutu oyo aza infecté, kokende mobembo na mboka oyo taux ya infection eza likolo, mpe kobika na etelelo eye eza kolandela bokono oyo.[1][3] Kokata tattoo mpe acupuncture emamaki bokono na batu ebele na mibu ya 1980; kasi, yango esili kokita mpeza mpo sterilisation ekomi kosalema malamu mpeza.[5] Ba virus ya hepatitis B ekoki kopesama te na bosimbani maboko, kokabola biye basaleka mpo na kolia, kopesana bizu, koyambana, kokosola, kosala intsya, to komelisa mwana libele.[3] Infection ekoki komonana na nzela ya diagnostic uta mikolo 30 kino 60 sima ya kozwama nayango. Diagnostic esalamaka mingi mpeza na bomeki makila mpo na koyeba virus mpe mpo na ba anticorps oyo etelemelaka virus.[1] Yango ezali moko ya ba epatíte oyo eyebani: A, B, C, D, na E.

Prevention na infection ebanda kosalema na nzela ya mangwele uta 1982.[1][6] Organisation Mondiale ya Santé esengaka ete mangwele epesama mokolo ya yambo ya mbotama. Esengelaka kobakisa lisusu na sima dose mibale to misato mpo na kozwa nguya nionso. Mangwele oyo esalaka pene na 95% ya ngonga nayango.[1] Ba mboka pene na 180 epesaka mangwele oyo bo mabongisi ya mobu 2006 ya bokati mangewle na mboka ndenge na ndenge.[7] Esengeli mpe komeka makila nionso liboso ya bozongisi makila mpo na koyeba soki ezali na epatíte B mpe kosalela ba condom mpo na komibatela na infection. Na eleko ya ebandeli ya infection, ba soins epesamaka kolandana na bilembo biye biza komonana epayi ya mutu. Epayi ya baye bazwami na bokono boye bokozongaka mbala na mbala nkisi ya kobundisa virus neti tenofovir to interferon ekoki ya litomba, kasi nkisi oyo ezalaka na talo makasi mpeza. Na ntango mosusu basalaka mpe greffe ya foie mpo na cirrhose.[1]

Pene na 1/3 ya batu na mokili mobimba bazwaki infection na eleko songolo ya bomoyi nabango, nakati nabango banda 240 million kino 350 million baza na ba infection oyo ezongaka mbala na mbala..[1][8] Batu koleka 750,000 bakufaka na epatíte B mibu nionso.[1] Pene na 300,000 ya ba liwa oyo elendani na cancer ya foie.[9] Bokono oyo sik'oyo boza na batu ebele bobele na Asia ya Est mpe na Afrika ya se ya Sahara epayi wapi kati 5 na 10% ya bakolo baza na bokono boye bozongaka mbala na mbala. Taux na Eropa mpe na America ya Likolo eza na se ya 1%.[1] Kala eyebanaka bo serum ya epatíte.[10] Balaka na maye matali ba nkisi bazali koluta ndenge ya kokela bilei biye bizali na mangwele ya HBV.[11] Bokono bokoki mpe kozwa makako mpe ya minene.[12]

References[kokoma | kobɔngisa mosólo]

  1. 1,00, 1,01, 1,02, 1,03, 1,04, 1,05, 1,06, 1,07, 1,08, 1,09, 1,10, 1,11 et 1,12 "Hepatitis B Fact sheet N°204". July 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  2. (en) Raphael Rubin; David S. Strayer, Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine ; [includes access to online text, cases, images, and audio review questions!], Philadelphia [u.a.], 5.,‎ 2008 (ISBN 9780781795166, lire en ligne), p. 638
  3. 3,0, 3,1 et 3,2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public — Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/B/bFAQ.htm#transmission. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  4. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170. 
  5. (en) Thomas HC, Viral Hepatitis, Hoboken, 4th,‎ (ISBN 9781118637302, lire en ligne), p. 83
  6. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066. 
  7. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687. 
  8. Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings 45 (3): 982–985. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.02.099. PMID 23622604. 
  9. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
  10. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597. 
  11. (en) Bruce Thomas, Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants,‎ 2002 (ISBN 9781601072542, lire en ligne), p. 4
  12. (en) [edited by] Stanley A. Plotkin, Walter A. Orenstein,mpé Paul A. Offit, Vaccines, [Edinburgh], 6th,‎ 2013 (ISBN 9781455700905, lire en ligne), p. 208