Fièvre typhoide

Útá Wikipedia.
Kokɛndɛ na: bolúki, boluki

Fièvre typhoide, eyebani lisusu bo typhoide, eza infection ya bactérie kowuta na Salmonelle oyo ezalisaka bilembo ya bokono.[1] Bilembo bikoki kosena banda na oyo ya mua pete kino na oyo ya makasi mpe mingi mpeza ebandaka komonana sima ya kati ya mikolo motoba kino tuku misato.[2][3] Mingi mingi fièvre ya makasi ebimelaka mpe ekomataka malembe malembe nakati ya mua mikolo.[2] Bolembu, mpasi ya se ya libumu, constipation, na moto mpasi yango mpe ekomelaka batu mingi.[3][4] Pulupulu mingi mingi etungisaka te mpe kosanza epayi ya batu mingi ezalaka oyo ya makasi te.[4] Batu mususu loposo nabango ya nzoto ebongwanaka mpe kobimisa ba tache ya rose.[3] Na ba cas misusu ya makasi ekoki kosala mutu asalaka mabunga.[4] Soki nkisi epesami te, bilembo bikoki koumela baposo to basanza ebele.[3] Batu mususu bakoki kozala na bactérie kati ya nzoto nabongo atako bokoyoka mpasi te; kasi, bakoki kokabola bokono epayi ya basusu.[5] Fièvre typhoide eza lolenge ya fièvre ya kokota na mitsopo elongo na fièvre paratyphoide.[1]

Typhoide ewutaka na babactérie ya Salmonelle, oyo eyebani lisusu bo Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, oyo ekolaka nakati ya mitsopo mpe nakati ya makila.[3][4] Typhoide epesamaka na nzela ya bolei to bomeli mayi oyo eza contaminé na nyei ya mutu oyo aza na bokono.[5] Bafacteur oyo ekoki komema likama eza assainissement ya mabe mpe hygiène mabe.[1] Baye bakenda mibembo na ba pays en voie de développement mpe bazalaka na libaku ya kozwa bokono oyo.[4] Bokono oyo ekoki kozwa obe mutu kasi nyama te.[5] Diagnostic esalemaka na nzela ya kobokola ba bactérie to kokundola ADN ya ba bactérie nakati ya makila, nyei, to moelle osseuse.[1][3][6] Kobokola ba bactérie ekoki kozala mua mpasi.[7] Examen ya moelle osseuse nde epesaka resultat malonga koleka.[6] Bilembo ya bokono oyo bilandani na oyo ya makono masusu maye makabolamaka.[4] Typhus eza bokono mosusu, ekeseni na typhoide.[8]

Mangwele ya typhoide ekoki kobikisa pene na 30% kino 70% ya batu oyo bakokaki kobela typhoide nakati ya mibu mibale ya yambo sima na bokati mangwele.[9] Makasi na mangwele makoki koumela kino mibu sambo.[1] Mangwele oyo ezalaka recommandé mpo na baye baza na libaku monene ya kozwa typhoide to batu oyo bazali kokende mobembo na bisika biye typhoide esi ezwi batu mingi.[5] Ba nzela misusu ya komibatela na bokono oyo eza kofournir mayi ya komela ya mpetwa, assainissement ya malamu mpeza, na kosokola maboko malamu mpeza.[3][5] Mutu oyo azali kobela typhoide esengeli te alamba bilei mpo na basusu, esengeli azela confirmation oyo ekoloba ete abiki mpeza, nde akoki kolamba.[3] Traitement ya bokono oyo esalemaka na ba antibiotics neti azithromycine, fluoroquinolones to céphalosporine ya génération ya misato .[1] Resistance na ba antibiotics oyo ekoma kosalema, yango esali traitement ya bokono oyo ekoma mpasi koleka.[1]

Na mobu ya 2010, 27 million ya batu bazwamaki na bokono oyo.[1] Bokono oyo ezalaka mingi mingi mpeza na Inde, mpe mingi mingi mpeza ezwaka bana.[1][5] Taux ya bokono oyo ekita na pays développés uta mobu ya 1940 kolandana na bolengeli assainissement malamu mpe bosaleli ba antibiotics mpo na traitement ya bokono.[5] Na Etats Unis, ba cas pene na 400 nde eyabanaka na ba lopitalo nzoka nde bokono ezwaka batu pene na 6,000 mibu nionso.[4][10] Na mobu ya 2013, bokono oyo ememaki liwa ya batu 161,000 – motango oyo mokitaki solo po ete na mobu ya 1990 ezalaki 181,000 (pene na 0.3% ya mokili mobimba).[11] Likama ya kokutana na liwa na nzela ya bokono oyo ekoki kozala 25% soki mutu ameli nkisi te, kasi soki mutu ameli nkisi ekozala kati ya 1 na 4%.[1][5] Nkombo typhoide elingi koloba "eza neti typhus" mpo ete bilembo nayango ekokani.[12]

References[kokoma | kobɔngisa mosólo]

  1. 1,0, 1,1, 1,2, 1,3, 1,4, 1,5, 1,6, 1,7, 1,8 et 1,9 Wain, J; Hendriksen, RS; Mikoleit, ML; Keddy, KH; Ochiai, RL (21 March 2015). "Typhoid fever.". Lancet 385 (9973): 1136–45. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)62708-7. PMID 25458731. 
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 (en) Anna E. Newton, CDC health information for international travel 2014 : the yellow book,‎ 2014 (ISBN 9780199948499, lire en ligne), « 3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel »
  3. 3,0, 3,1, 3,2, 3,3, 3,4, 3,5, 3,6 et 3,7 "Typhoid Fever". May 14, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever/. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  4. 4,0, 4,1, 4,2, 4,3, 4,4, 4,5 et 4,6 "Typhoid Fever". May 14, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever/technical.html. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  5. 5,0, 5,1, 5,2, 5,3, 5,4, 5,5, 5,6 et 5,7 "Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper.". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 83 (6): 49–59. Feb 8, 2008. PMID 18260212. http://www.who.int/wer/2008/wer8306.pdf?ua=1. 
  6. 6,0 et 6,1 Crump, JA; Mintz, ED (15 January 2010). "Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid Fever.". Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 50 (2): 241–6. doi:10.1086/649541. PMID 20014951. 
  7. (en) Alan J. Magill, Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases, London, 9th,‎ 2013, 568–572 p. (ISBN 9781455740437, lire en ligne)
  8. Cunha BA (March 2004). "Osler on typhoid fever: differentiating typhoid from typhus and malaria". Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 18 (1): 111–25. doi:10.1016/S0891-5520(03)00094-1. PMID 15081508. 
  9. Anwar, E; Goldberg, E; Fraser, A; Acosta, CJ; Paul, M; Leibovici, L (2 January 2014). "Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 1: CD001261. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001261.pub3. PMID 24385413. 
  10. Jackson, BR; Iqbal, S; Mahon, B (27 March 2015). "Updated Recommendations for the Use of Typhoid Vaccine - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015.". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 64 (11): 305–308. PMID 25811680. 
  11. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
  12. "Oxford English Dictionary (Online)". www.oed.com. p. typhoid, adj. and n.